ACI AGRO SOLUTION

Thursday, September 11, 2014

stevia a sweetener with strong safety support


The safety of purified steviol glycosides has been evaluated through rigorous scientific
research, which supports the safety of purified stevia leaf extracts for use as a sweetener.
The safety of purified stevia leaf extract is supported by:
• Stevia historical use dating back centuries in South American countries and for over four decades in Japan; • Years of rigorous scientific research on purified steviol glycosides, the sweet components of the stevia leaf; and
• The positive scientific statements of several food safety and regulatory authorities, including JECFA and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) which support the safety of purified stevia leaf extract for use in foods and beverages.

ingredient safety assessment

The safety assessment for food ingredients by regulatory agencies is an extensively
detailed and lengthy process, designed to ensure that a new food ingredient, such as a
non-caloric sweetener, does not pose a risk for any consumers, including children and
pregnant women.

The protocols that must be used for safety studies have been established over many
years, by independent international experts, and are globally accepted. The results from
toxicology or safety studies are used to establish the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). The
ADI is defined as the amount of a food ingredient that people can consume on a daily
basis during their lifetime without any appreciable risk to health. The ADI is established
from long-term animal studies, in which animals are fed diets containing increasing
levels of the food ingredient for the majority of their lifetime, through stages of development and growth. Detailed assessment of the animals’ health is completed, and the highest dose that resulted in no adverse effects is called the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL). To adjust for any possible individual differences (intra-species) or differences between the test species and humans (inter-species), the NOAEL level is
divided by 100 (10X for intra-species and 10X for inter-species). This is called a safety
factor, and is designed to provide even more assurance that the ADI level will be safe
for all consumers.

Animal studies are critical to the safety assessment, as it is not ethical to test a new
ingredient in humans without determining the level that is safe. Animals can be given
very high doses, which are used to increase the likelihood of detecting any adverse effect the ingredient may cause, and to be able to determine how the body uses the ingredient. Lower doses are used to determine the amounts that can be consumed every day with no adverse effect. Once animal studies determine the amount that is safe, additional studies are done in humans to confirm the validity of the animal studies.
The next step in the approval process is to estimate the likely consumption of the food
ingredient, by different segments of the population. This includes different age groups
and sexes. The consumption estimates are based on consumer surveys on consumption
of the foods and beverages that will contain the ingredient. These data are used to set
limits on the levels of the ingredient allowed in each type of food and beverage, to ensure that no consumer will be exposed to more than the Acceptable Daily Intake in their diet.

The ADI is a conservative safe exposure level and does not represent a maximum
allowable daily intake level and should not be regarded as a specific point at which safety ends and possible health concerns begin. Because the ADI has a built-in safety margin and is based on a chronic lifetime exposure, occasional consumption in amounts greater than the ADI would not cause adverse effects or concern.

After approval, regulatory agencies continue to monitor scientific literature for new
studies or reports of adverse effects of ingredients, and will carefully review the results to
ensure on-going safety of the use of the new ingredient.

Friday, June 13, 2014

TEA STEVIA

Infusions : One bag was placed in a 0.5 to 1 liter of boiling water and brew 5-15 minutes . Iced Tea : Two packets are placed in a 1.5 liter bottle of water. After 15-30 min / maybe longer / get excellent iced tea . With a slice of lemon in the glass get refreshing fresh drink with a great tasting stevia blends well with all types of herbal tea, the more that can be used instead of other sweeteners , which are used commonly . It is suitable for consumption by diabetics .

Recommended:
    In medicated diets , including diets to reduce obesity ;
    In cases of chronic diseases, including diabetes , high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases , allergies and the like .
    As an alternative to fresh foods and drinks with high sugar content .
    At elevated mental work and high stress loads.
    In nervous exhaustion and insomnia.
    For intensive training and sports activities related to high physical loads;
    To overcome the exhaustion of the body by hemodialysis , chemotherapy and radiotherapy .
    Recovery of the immune system after taking antibiotics.
Curative and prophylactic properties stevia stimulates the functioning of the body at the cellular level .
    Consumption of stevia , regardless of its sweet taste , it causes an increase in blood sugar levels and prevent the development of hyper- or hypoglycemic condition.
    Restores balance of carbohydrate, protein , fat and water-salt exchange.
    Neutralizes and removes toxins from the body , including : nitrates , preservatives, chemical additives used in the food industry , heavy metals , radionuclides , etc. .
    Helps to reduce obesity and prevent accumulation of excess weight.
    It turns relaxing effect on the nervous system , without causing drowsiness.
    Has useful heart tonic effect , strengthens the cardiovascular system , lowers cholesterol
    Stabilize blood pressure . Restores blood circulation . Favorable effect in conditions of hypoxia / oxygen starvation / .
    Improves neuromuscular conduction.
    Improves the functioning of the stomach and intestines , fermentivnata activity of the organs of the digestive system in acute and chronic gastritis .
    Has bactericidal, anti-allergic , analgesic and anti sclerosis effect .
    Helps with various skin disorders : eczema , dermatitis, skin allergies , seborrhea and psoriazis.steviya makes the skin soft and supple , improves tone , smoothes wrinkles and enhances turgor .
    Normalize the functions of the liver and kidneys.
    Strengthens the immune system and increases the resistivity of the organism to infectious diseases , including influenza and other viral infections.
    When rinsing the mouth protects against tooth decay and gum from gum disease .
    Relieves rheumatic pain.
    Reduces the formation of free radicals and increases the durability of the body.
    Helps to overcome addictions , including alcohol, nicotine and psychotropic substances

Thursday, May 15, 2014

PLANT AGRONOMY

Management of Stevia cultivation is yet to mature in many regions and cultivators are 
still on a learning curve. While tolerant of most soil types, Stevia is normally grown on 
a sandy loam or loam. Stevia occurs naturally on soils of pH 4 to 5, but thrives with soil 
pH as high as 7.5. However, Stevia does not tolerate saline soils. Normally there is no 
pest or disease incidence reported in this crop. Harvesting starts after 3rd-4th month of 
plantation.

In India, Stevia cultivation is also looked upon as an opportunity to revitalise rural economies and tax incentives are being offered to take up cultivation. Bioved Research and Communication Centre (BRCC), UP, a centre which coordinates Stevia cultivation in the Northern State of Uttar Pradesh has reported that Indian climatic conditions suits Stevia cultivation due to ideal temperature conditions and the humidity ranging from 65-85 %. Scientific cultivation and careful selection of planting material can yield better returns in shorter times as compared to traditional crops according to Indian Stevia cultivators.Cultivation of stevia opens up new vistas for crop diversification and a viable 
alternative to sugar cane in view of escalating cost of production due to extensive usage of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation requirements of sugarcane. Cultivation of stevia may be useful in the protection of environment, restoration of the health of soil, and revitalize the rural economy. 



SAFETY ISSUES 
Since the 70’s, Stevia has been used in Japan as the main alternative to sugar instead 
of the banned aspartame in diet soda, gum and other food and beverages. Stevia is 
also used as a sweetener in other countries after extensive studies proved its safety. 
Stevia has been used with success to treat many ailments including diabetes, high blood pressure, gingivitis, digestion ailments, and addictions, topically for acne and other skin ailments and also as a wonderful weight loss aid. Stevia provides several advantages over sugar and artificial sweeteners when used in food production, lower costs for transportation, storage/warehousing and handling charges:
In 2006, the World Health Organization evaluated Stevia and found no evidence of carcinogenicty in Stevioside and Rebaudioside A. It also reported that Stevioside 
led to beneficial effects in patients with hypertension or with type-2 diabetes. The report concluded that further study was needed to determine proper dosage. 

Thursday, April 17, 2014

Stevia Natural Sweetener is recommended for use in

General recommendations on foodstuff sweetenin

Foodstuff Group Recommended  
 Quantity(mg/kg) per kg ready prepared foodstuff
Sugar free water based flavoured drinks
160 - 700 mg/kg
Sugar free dairy based drinks 
500 - 700 mg/kg
Sugar free fruit juice based drinks 
  300 - 700 mg/kg
Sugar free water based desserts
500 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free dairy based desserts      
500 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free fruit juice based desserts   
350 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free egg based desserts  
500 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free cereal based desserts   
500 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free fat based desserts
 500 - 1000 mg/kg
Breakfast cereals   
600 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free edible ices   
   500 - 800 mg/kg
Sugar free canned or bottled fruit     
 350 - 1000 mg/kg
Energy reduced jams, jellies, marmalades 
500 - 2000 mg/kg
Energy reduced fruit preperations                    
300 - 1000 mg/kg
Sweet sour preserves of fruit
 300 - 500 mg/kg
Sugar free confectionery    
  1000 - 3000 mg/kg
Sugar free cocoa or nut based confectionery    
500 - 700 mg/kg
Sugar free starch based confectionery
500 - 2000 mg/kg
Sandwich spreads   
 500 - 1000 mg/kg
Sugar free chewing gum 
700 - 5500 mg/kg
Fine bakery wares
 500 - 2000 mg/kg
Sweet sour preserves and marinades of fish crustaceans and molluscs
200 - 400 mg/kg
Sweet sour vegetables preserves
200 - 500 mg/kg
Sauces   
350 - 500 mg/kg
Mustard
300 - 500 mg/kg
Salads prepared with sauces  
350 - 500 mg/kg
Formulae for weight control intended to replace total daily food intake or an individual meal 
300 - 800 mg/kg
supplements for use under medical control 
300 - 1000 mg/kg
Solid dietary supplements 
300 - 2000 mg/kg
Liquid dietary supplements
300 - 600 mg/kg
Medicine preperations
1000 - 5000 mg/kg

Saturday, March 29, 2014

Stevia is Safe


The safety of stevia for human consumption has been established through rigorous peer‐reviewed 
research and the FDA and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives recognize it as safei  More than 200 extensive studies have been conducted on stevia attesting to its safety.   

Stevia Benefits for Diabetics 
Stevia is a good choice for people with diabetes. Studies show that stevia has no effect on blood sugar levelsii..   
Where Do I Find Stevia?    
Stevia can be found in hundreds of food and beverage products from around the world including teas, 
soft drinks, juices, yogurt, soymilk, baked goods, cereal, salad dressings, confections and as a tabletop sweeteneriii
.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

stevia—a sweetener with strong safety support


The safety of purified steviol glycosides has been evaluated through rigorous scientific research, which supports the safety of purified stevia leaf extracts for use as a sweetener. 

The safety of purified stevia leaf extract is supported by:

Stevia’s historical use dating back centuries in South American 
 countries and for over four decades in Japan;

• Years of rigorous scientific research on purified steviol glycosides, the sweet 
 components of the stevia leaf;

• The positive scientific statements of several food safety and regulatory 
 authorities, including JECFA and the European Food Safety Authority 
 (EFSA) which support the safety of purified stevia leaf extract for use in foods 
 and beverages. 

The safety assessment for food ingredients by regulatory agencies is an extensive
detailed and lengthy process, designed to ensure that a new food ingredient, such as a
non-caloric sweetener, does not pose a risk for any consumers, including children and
pregnant women.

role of stevia in a healthful diet

People have an innate preference for sweet tastes,which is thought to confer an evolu-tionary advantage. Sweet foods tend to be a source of carbohydrates needed for energy. For centuries, people satisfied this taste preference with sweet foods found in nature. Today, the consumption of sugars in excess may contribute to an energy imbalance in the diet. Dietary imbalance is often accompanied with sedentary lifestyle and limited physical activity. A positive energy balance may contribute to overweight or obesity and 
related chronic diseases such as diabetes.
Diet and lifestyle modifications are necessary for the prevention of these conditions. These modifications may be challenging, but simple changes to diet and lifestylecan be an effective and sustainable way to help manage weight. It may be beneficial to reduce excess added sugars for improved energy balance and weight management. Purified stevia leaf extract is safe for people of all ages. Including stevia as part of a healthful, balanced diet in addition to regular physical activity can help people reach their weight loss or weight management goals

Friday, February 21, 2014

A Brief History

Stevia is a plant indigenous to mountainous regions of Brazil and Paraguay. For centuries, this herbal sweetener has been used by native cultures to counteract the bitter taste of various plant-based medicines and beverages. The Guarani Indians of Paraguay have used this potent sweetener in their green tea for generations. The name they designated for stevia leaves was “sweet herb.” In addition, these native peoples have historically used stevia as a digestive aid and a topical dressing for wounds and other skin disorders. In the sixteenth century, Europeans became aware of the herbal sweetener through the Spanish Conquistadors. In the late 1880s, Moises S. Bertoni, director of the College of Agriculture in AsunciĆ³n, Paraguay, became extremely intrigued by the stevia plant. Its reputation was that it was so sweet that even just a small leaf part could sweeten an entire container of mate tea. Be rtoni wanted to find out if this was true. 

After several years of studying the plant, he wrote about it in a local botanical publication. In 1905, Bertoni published an important article about the incredible sweetening power of the stevia plant, which he considered superior to sugar and extremely marketable. Other articles written by Bertoni note that stevia is unquestionably superior to saccharine because it is nontoxic and has significant therapeutic benefits. It sweetens with unprecedented potency and can be used in its natural state. The first stevia crop was harvested in 1908 and subsequently, stevia plantations sprang up in South America. In 1921, the American Trade Commissioner to Paraguay, George S. Brady, wrote that although the herb is an extraordinary sweetener with remarkable properties, little had been done to commercially cultivate the plant. He suggested that stevia may be an ideal sugar product for diabetics and strongly advised that American companies pursue itsimportation.

 During the decade of the 1970s, the Japanese developed a new method which could better refine the glycosides contained in the stevia leaf. The result was a compound called stevioside which is from 200 to 300 times sweeter than white sugar. The Japanese approach artificial sweeteners with great caution and they believe stevioside to be safer and more effective than other non-nutritive,chemical products . Stevioside is considered superior in its ability to sweeten; however, it does not exhibit some of the other therapeutic actions found in whole stevia leaves. Stevia enjoyed substantial popularity during the 1980s as a natural sweetener and was found in a variety of consumer products. In 1986, however, the FDA abruptly seized stevia inventories and in 1991claimed it was not suitable as a food additive. Advocates for stevia claim this happened because the herb is a natural, powerful, inexpensive and non-patentable sweetener, and therefore poses a threat to pharmaceutical sweeteners and sugar-alcohol sweeteners like mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol. At this writing, stevia has received approval by the FDA to be sold only as a dietary supplement, not as a sweetening agent. Currently, stevia is commercially grown in Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Central America, Israel, ChinaThailand, and the United States. It is considered an important natural sweetener in both Japan and Korea, and has been safely used in these countries for decades. Extracts of stevia and related products make up a considerable portion of the Japanese market for natural sweetening agents. They use stevia in sweet sauces, pickles, beverages, etc., making Japan one of the largest single consumers of stevia in the world. Today, the demand for stevia is escalating, ACI AGRO SOLUTION  are looking to expand the commercial cultivation of the plant.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014


   stevioside is god gift for diabetic patients

Zero-calorie, all-natural Stevia In The Raw® is Mother Nature’s answer to eating smarter. Made from the leaves of the stevia plant, Stevia In The Raw is a versatile, 100% natural, zero-calorie premium sweetener. Without added sugars and extra calories, Stevia In The Raw naturally sweetens food and drinks and is an excellent choice for baking and cooking.

Receiving a diagnosis of diabetes or pre-diabetes can be both overwhelming and frightening. Providing your patients and clients with information and a concrete action plan to better understand and manage their new condition is essential.

To avoid information-overload, start by focusing on small, simple changes that can easily be incorporated into your clients' daily routine. Even small actions like substituting a zero-calorie sweetener for sugar in coffee or tea can make a significant difference. Swapping just 4 teaspoons of sugar daily with Stevia In The Raw® or Monk Fruit In The Raw™, for example, can cut over 400 calories a week, with very little effort.

Browse our resources to help better prepare your clients for the lifestyle changes that are so important to treating and managing diabetes.

Browse our resources to help better prepare your clients for the lifestyle changes that are so important to treating and managing diabetes.
so stevia market is very good market in all world. 

Monday, January 20, 2014

IMPORTANT OF PLASTIC MULCH IN STEVIA CULTIVATION.

Mulching is a Agricultural practices to cover the soil with plastic or straw/wheat dust on the top of the
soil therefore, to control weed, excessive water evaporation & conserve soil moisture. Both organic &
in organic mulching have great benefit for stevia crop productivity.

Advantages of plastic mulching 

1. It is completely impermeable to water.

2. It prevents the direct evaporation of moisture from the soil and thus limits the water losses and conserves moisture.

3. By evaporation suppression, it prevents the rise of water containing salts.

4. Mulch can facilitate fertilizer placement and reduce the loss of plant nutrient through leaching.

5. Mulches can also provide a barrier to soil pathogens

6. Opaque mulches prevent germination of annual weeds from receiving light

7. Reflective mulches will repel certain insects

8. Mulches maintain a warm temperature even during nighttime which enables seeds to germinate quickly and for young plants to rapidly establish a strong root growth system.

9.Synthetic mulches play a major role in soil solarisation process.

10.Mulches develop a microclimatic underside of the sheet, which is higher in carbon-di-oxide due to the higher level of microbial activity.

11.Under mulch, the soil structure is maintained during cropping period

12. Early germination almost 2-3 days.

13. Better nodulation in crops like Groundnut.

14. Less nematodes population.

15.Water erosion is completely averted since soil is completely covered form bearing action of rain drops.

16.When compared to organic mulches, it serves for a longer period.

Moisture conservation.

To keep stevia leaves clean, market demand will increases.

• Plastic film with its moisture barrier properties does not allow the soil moisture to escape Water that evaporates from the soil surface under mulch film, condenses on the lower surface of the film and falls back as droplets.

• Thus moisture is preserved for several days and increases the period between two irrigations.

• The irrigation water or rainfall either moves into the soil thru holes on the mulch around the plant area or through the unmulched area.

Weed control:

• Black plastic film does not allow the sunlight to pass through on to the soil

• Photosynthesis does not take place in the absence of sunlight below black film hence, it arrests weed growth.

Limitations:

• They are costly to use in commercial production when compared to organic

mulches.

• Probability of ‘burning’ or ‘scorching’ of the young pants due to high temperature of black film.

• Difficulty in application of top dressed fertilizer

•Reptile movement and rodent activities are experienced in some places.

• More runoff

• Environmental pollution

• Difficult in machinery movement

• Can not be used for more than one season using thin mulches

• Weed penetration with thin films

•Toxic to livestock.

Areas of application:

Mulching is mainly employed for

a. Moisture conservation in rainfed areas

b. Reduction of irrigation frequency and water saving in irrigated areas

c. Soil temperature moderation in greenhouse cultivation

d. Soil solorisation for control of soil borne diseases

e. Reduce the rain impact, prevent soil erosion and maintain soil structure

f. In places where high value crops only to be cultivated.

g. In the areas where high water scarcity like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Hariyana, Punjab in India, mulching will give better crop yield as compare to existing method.

Selection of mulch:

The selection of mulches depends upon the ecological situations and primary and secondary aspects of mulching

Rainy season ………………………………………..Perforated mulch.

Orchard and plantation…………………………………………….Thicker mulch

Soil solarisation …………………………………………………..Thin transparent film

Weed control through solarisation ……………………………….Transparent film

Weed control in cropped land………………………………………….Black film

Sandy soil ……………………………………………………………………Black film

Saline water use …………………………………………………………….Black film

Summer cropped land ………………………………………………………White film

Insect repellent …………………………………………………………….Silver colour film

Early germination ……………………………………………………… Thinner film .

Conclusion:

Selection of mulch in stevia cultivation will depend according to Agro- climatic condition of a particular zone. We are realized the effect of plastic mulch in stevia cultivation in India. Famers/growers both are benefited for adopting this technique in their field. Production as well as cost of cultivation has been minimizing greatly. So, we advice our growers to adopt this technique to get better profit and control soil erosion as well as costing of cultivation.

Tuesday, December 17, 2013

EFFECT OF DATES OF PLANTING ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STEVIA

Among the various factors that influence plant growth and development, climatic 
conditions play an important role in the performance of crops. For successful cultivation of any crop, crop should be exposed to an optimum climatic conditions during the growing period, so as to get maximum growth and yield of stevia. 

Difference in planting dates would bring about a variation in growth and yield of stevia. So, selection of suitable time of planting is necessary to maximize the growth and biomass yield in stevia. 

1.1 Growth parameters

 Dates of planting did not exhibit significant differences with respect to dry leaf yield. 
Irrespective of nitrogen levels, January planting produced higher dry leaf yield (3.11 t/ha) 
compared to October planting (2.59 t/ha). Assessment of dry matter production and 
distribution to various plant parts is important for determination of total yield of crop Donald, 1962). The reasons for higher dry leaf yield in case of January planting may be attributed to higher leaf dry matter accumulation. The leaf dry matter accumulation was higher in case of January planting (29.61 g/plant) and it was lower in case of October planting (26.11). 

The variation in leaf dry matter may be related to the variation in number of leaves 
per plant, number of branches per plant and plant height. The number of leaves per plant was higher in case of January planting (391.36) compared to October planting (370.33). The plants planted in January produced higher number of branches per plant as compared in October and November, which produced minimum number of branches per plant. The plants of January planting, which experienced congenial long-day conditions with high temperature and light intensity during vegetative growth resulted in vigorous growth, which enabled them to produce more branches. October and November plants experienced unfavouarble climatic conditions (short-days and low temperature) and as a result had poor growth and in turn had less branches production.  

The variation in number of leaves per plant may be due to difference in number of branches per plant, it was highest (48.04) in case of January planting compared to November planting (47.42) and lowest in case of October planting (46.82). The plant height was higher (54.72 cm) in case of January planting and it was lower (50.43 cm) in case of October planting. This increased number of leaves in early planting dates could be directly correlated to the fact that early planting had increased number of leaf bearing points in terms of increased number of branches per plant. The crop planted in October and November produced minimum number of leaves, due to the fact that they did not experience favourable growing conditions during their grand vegetative growth period. The results obtained in the present study are in confirmity with the findings of Kiyatkin (1975) in chrysanthemum. 

The reasons for higher dry leaf yield in case of January planting, probably due to higher leaf area (4825.73 cm2/plant) produced in case of January planting compared to October planting (4656.36 cm2/plant) January planting recorded higher LAI (4.84) compared to October planting (4.59). Leaf area in stevia differed significantly due to different dates of planting. The leaf area per plant was highest in plants planted in January. Leaf area was minimum in plants planted during October and November. This reduced leaf area in later planting dates might be due to production of less number of leaves, which could be due to reduction in plant height and number of branches.
Increased leaf area in the plants of January planting could be attributed to the production of more number of leaves per plant which could be directly correlated to the increased plant height and number of branches.

The higher dry leaf yield and growth parameters in case of January planting may be 
due to dense canopy compared to October panting. Economical yield is part of the total 
biological yield of the crop and hence the dry matter production is an important eterminant of the economic yield (Donald, 1963). The total dry matter production was higher (108.78 g/plant) in case of January planting compared to October planting (100.96 g/plant). 

The higher fresh leaf yield (11.58 t/ha) was obtained in case of January planting than 
in October planting (9.73 t/ha). However, there was non-significant differences in fresh leaf yield between the dates of planting. The reasons for marginally higher fresh leaf yield with January planting may be attributed to more number of leaves per plant. This increased number of leaves in early planting dates could be directly correlated to fact that early planted plants had increased number of leaf bearing points in terms of increased number of branches per plant. 

In initial stages of growth (30 DAP) October planting had putforth good growth with 
respect to plant height and number of branches per plant, though there were no statistical differences between them. But after 45 DAP, January planting performed better compared to October planting by providing higher plant height, number of branches and leaves per plant. The reasons may be due to (day length) favourable soil physical conditions offered for the penetration and distributing roots. 

1.2 Flowering 

The plants of October and November plantings were early to initiate flower buds, 
early to flower and early to reach for first flowering while the plants of January were late for the same. Early flowering in October and November plants could be due to exposure of plants to unfavourable climatic conditions during the vegetative growth period as a result they entered early into the reproductive phase as they experienced short days and low temperature which favours flowering in stevia. The earliness in flowering due to short days may be attributed to an earlier morphological differentiation of flowers The earlier cessation of vegetative phase immediately after planting as observed in the plant height and number of leaves per plant at early stages of growth in the treatments of October and November plantings should have also contributed to the earliness in flowering in these treatments. Earliness in flowering due to short-day conditions has been reported by previous workers in chrysanthemum (Bareman et al., 1993 and Meher et al., 1999b). On the other hand, the January planting experienced congenial climate (long days and optimum temperature) and remained sufficiently longer in vegetative phase. The delay may be attributed to the floral inhibitors produced by the leaves under long day conditions, which in turn affects the apical differentiation as suggested by Tanaka (1968).  

Plants of later plantings (October, November), which experienced lower light intensity 
and duration, lower night temperature during their vegetative growth period, remained dwarf and had less number of branches and leaves and as a result had decreased flowering duration. Similarly, Nagaraju (2001) reported wider flowering duration in China aster when planted during May months. 

1.3 Interaction effects nitrogen levels and dates planting on growth and 
yield 

The interaction effects between dates of planting and nitrogen levels did not exhibit 
significant differences with respect to dry leaf yield. However, the higher dry leaf yield (4.01 t/ha) was recorded in case of January planting when 105:30:45 kg NPK per ha was applied. Whereas, the lowest dry leaf yield (1.8 t/ha) was obtained in case of October planting with 60:30:45 kg NPK per ha. 

The differences in dry leaf yield due to dates of planting and nitrogen levels 
interaction may be attributed to variations in growth parameters due to variations in 
temperature and light intensity. January planting which received 105:30:45 kg NPK per ha recorded maximum number of leaves per plant at harvest (468), whereas lower number of leaves per plant (295.78) was recorded in case of interaction between October planting and 60:30:45 kg NPK per ha. 

The number of branches per plant at harvest was maximum (49.39) in case of 
January planting which received 105:30:45 kg NPK per ha. Whereas, lower number of 
branches per plant (45.78) was obtained due to combination of October planting and 60:30:45 kg NPK per ha. 

The higher plant height (59.31 cm) was recorded in case of January planting when 
105:30:45 kg NPK ha was applied, whereas, lowest plant height (48.00 cm) was recorded in case of October planting received 60:30:45 kg NPK per ha. 

At harvest, dry matter accumulation was maximum (131.63 g/plant) in case of 
January planting when 105:30:45 kg NPK ha was applied compared to that of lowest (80.60 g/plant) dry matter accumulation in case of October planting received 60:30:45 kg NPK per ha. Similar results with respect to maximum leaf dry matter production (35.82 g/plant) was recorded in the same treatment combination. 

The maximum dry matter accumulation due to higher levels of nutrients may be due 
to the fact that for initial impetus for plants to grow, sufficient nutrient is very much essential. The plants will have good vegetative growth which in turn helps to utilize light better. 

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

STEVIA Basic formulas for low-calorie

Formulation and poduction   of low-calorie baked goods require creative use of non-standard food ingredients that are not typically found in traditional bakery products. These ingredient eplacement can effect the multiple ingredient interactions in baked goods which influence texture, stability, flavor and sweetness. The use of these reduced-calorie non-standard food ingredients greatly effects the chemical and physical characteristics of baked goods 
including flavor, grain and texture, richness, aeration, tenderness and stability. Caloric reduction in baked goods often requires a reformulation using various reduced-calorie ingredients to build in the desired properties of the finished baked goods. In addition, ingredient trials and experimental duplication are often required to understand these complex ingredient interactions. 

Sugar provides many functional attributes to baked goods in addition to sweetness. The character of baked goods is gratly dependent on the chemical behavoir of sugar. In cookies, high sugar levels combined with low moisture provide the crisp and brittle texture desired in sugar snap cookies. In high moisture systems such as cakes, sugar retards the gelatinization of starch which has a tenderizing effect on cake texture. Sugar also provides humectancy for baked goods which provides moistness, tenderness and a perservative effect. 


Intense sweeteners as Stevia can be used to replace the sweetness contribution of sugar in reduced-calorie baked goods. In order for them to be effective in bakery systems they must be heat stable like Stevia. 


Reduction of sugar's bulk in baked goods leads to formula imbalance, producing undesirable results. The partial or complete removal of sucrose from cookies dough tends to produce a cookie with a flaky texture typical for biscuits. In addition, the replacement of sucrose with humectant ingredients tends to 

produce a soft/chewy texture to the products. The overall changes in sugarreduced cookies tend to make them less acceptable to consumers in general. The complete removal of sugar from yellow cake would not provide a one third caloric reduction. In addition, structural failure occures in yellow cake when sugar was completely removed. Reduction of quality is small when only 25% of sugar is replaced, but this small reduction in sugar provided no meaningful reduction in calories. 

The majority of insoluble bulking agents used in reduced-calorie baked goods are mainly dietary fibers derived from grain sources, legumes, fruits and stalks (i.e. celluloses). There are currently over 100 commercially available dietary fiber ingredients. Incorporation of insoluble bulking agents in baked goods often requires special handling or changes in normal production process. Dietary fibers tend to absorb large quantaties of water which dilute calories, but also result in mixing and dough handling problems. The behavior of reducedcalorie products can be affected by the rate of hydration of the fibers. Presoaking fibers prior to use is often necessary to provide the needed functionality. 


ACI AGRO SOLUTION  have been the key factor in the development of really good.

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

stevia the sugar substitute

All over world there is increasing tendency towards consuming natural products and thus living a natural life and. At the same time our life styles have changed so much over the last 4-5 decades that sweeteners (either high calorie natural or proceeded sugars or high potency and low calorie sweeteners such as Aspartame) have become integral part of our natural daily diet.
Due to sedentary life styles that we all tend to lead these days the incidence of obesity and diabetic conditions are increasing dramatically. In India number of diabetic people in the age group of 25-45 is about 15% and is increasing at an alarming pace. In addition, we are largest consumers of sugar in the world. This single factor, we have come to understand, would greatly contribute to increasing the number of diabetic people and related problems.Stevia, botanically known as Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Family- Asteraceae) is a sweet herb. A perennial herb, Stevia is a member of the daisy family. The leaves are mid green and intensely sweet. The compounds in the leaves are called stevioside and rebaudioside and they can be more than 200 times sweeter than sugar. The plant bears greenish cream flowers in autumn.Although Stevia has been in use in Asia and Europe for years, it was only in the past couple of years that is really started to capture attention in the India market as a healthy alternative sweetener to sugar. Stevia has no calcium cyclamate, no saccharin, no aspartame and no calories. It is safe for diabetics, as it does not affect blood sugar levels; it does not have the neurological or renal side effects associated with some of the artificial sweeteners.Stevia is a new crop in that is gaining very high popularity amongst all type of sweetener users as most ideal substitute for 
sugar. Sugar is basically a chemical that has grown in market over last many years. But in this age of changing life styles and people becoming more conscious of their health, the worldwide sugar consumption is going down and is getting replaced by low calorie sweeteners. Many of these Sweeteners are complex chemicals or many times naturals as well.stevia is gaining more acceptances amongst countries of eastern block such as Japan and Korea. There are many advantages of using Stevia over conventional sweeteners the main one being:
Stevia leaves are 20-30 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia leaves can be dried and stored. Stevia can be used in raw from. Stevia is short duration crop. It is harvested 3/4 times a year. The yearly yields can be in the range of 3-4 tons. Stevia can be sold @ 40-70 Rs per kilo so dried leaves and is thus economically extremely beneficial to growers. 

Uses of Stevia leaves
Currently consumers have more inclination towards products that are claimed to be ‘All Natural ‘and ‘ Low CHO’. Hence, the food industry could grab a major share in the market if Stevia, the natural sweetener, is used as sweetening agent in product s like biscuits, jams, chocolates, ice-creams, baked foods, soft drinks, soda, candies and also common beverages like 
dip tea, coffee and herbal tea that are targeted particularly at the diabetics and also the health conscious consumers.

Application in bakery, confectionery and beverage sector 
All cooked and baked food items like puddings; desserts can be sweetened with only very small quantities of Stevia leaf powder as compared to table sugar. Just 50 gms. of Stevia leaf can replace 1000 gms. of cane sugar. The sweetness of stevioside is non-fermenting and it does not display browning when cooked. This further widens its area of application in 
baking. This also enhances the quality and safety to usage with a longer shelf-life period. Breads made with Stevia as an ingredient (for diabetics patients) have been found to display improved texture, softness and an increased shelf life.The confectionery industry is yet to reap the benefit of stevia, which has the potential to replace sugar as sweetening agent. The leaves can be used in chocolates and candies not only to meet the requirement of diabetic and health conscious consumers, but also to harvest the added advantage, that it does not encourage tooth decay. Stevia possesses an antimicrobial property and can be used in all the sweets that children are fond of. A mere fragment of the leaf is enough to sweeten the mouth for an hour. So stevia can also be used in the manufacture of chewing gums, mints, mouth refreshers and 
even in pan.The soft drink manufactures have introduced several health drinks and many food supplementary beverage s, especially for the diabetics’ patients. The addition of Stevia leaves (dried) as such or as powder in such products would not only aid in increasing the sweetness naturally but also helps in rejuvenating the pancreatic gland. Apart from this, Stevia is rich in 
nutrients, containing substantial amounts of protein, calcium and phosphorus.Stevia consists of 10-12% of stevioside, which can be extracted as liquid concentrate that can be used directly in soft drinks, beverages, chocolates etc.

Medicinal Properties of Stevia
Stevia is versatile herb with incredible sweetness that can be safely used in herbal medicines; tonics for diabetic patients and 
also in the daily usage products, Stevia leaves can be used because of its anti-fungal and anti-bacterial property. Mild stevia 
leaf tea offers excellent relief for an upset stomach.
A wet Stevia leaf bag provides a cooling effect on eyes (similar to using cucumber). The leaves effectively tighten the skin 
and are good for wrinkles. Stevia has proved to give exceptional benefits when used regularly in skin care. It also has a 
healing effect on blemishes, wounds, cuts and scratches.
Stevia is helpful in weight and blood pressure management. It has also been reported that stevia lowers incident of colds and flu

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS OF STEVIA

Stevia extract are considered to have few calories, carbohydrates, fats and cholesterol. So , it can be safely used by diabetic persons.Stevia also acts as flavouring agent. It brings out true flavours in cereals, breads, icecreams, tooth paste and mouth wash. It is used to aid digestion, losing weight and stimulating appetite. The sweetening effect of these compounds is purely by taste, they are undigested and the body absorbs no part of the chemicals, they are , therefore of no nutritional value.one-fourth teaspoonful of dried leaves (finely ground) is claimed to have a sweetening value equal to one 1 cup of sugar. Stevia is a completely safe pecific herb for diabetes a hypoglycaemia, a flavour enhancer, it contains a variety of constituents, besides the stevioides and rebaudiosides the nutrients and good deal of sterols, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins. Stevia also contains an extremely rich volatile oil comprising rich proportions of sesquiterpenes. So far these constituents probably have some impact on human physiology and may help explain some of the reported beneficial therapeutic uses of stevia.
Blood-Sugar Normalizer:
it is probably the of steviosides themselves that has produced dozan of empirical and semi-controlled reports of antihypoglycemic action. In different places of the world, it is believed that stevia is helpful for hypoglycaemia and diabetes because it nourishes the pancreas and thereby helps to restore normal pancreatic function. In semi-controlled clinical reports, one also encounters this action. Similar trends have been reported in humans and experimental animals by other workers. In Brazil, stevia casules are officially approved for sale for the treatment of diabetes. Stevia shows a normalizing tendency to blood sugar i.e. it brings high blood sugar down, and has no effect on persons with normal blood sugar levels. 
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